Reports and Publications
Gentrification and Opportunity Zones: A Study of 100 Most Populous Cities with D.C. as a Case Study
Haydar Kurban, Charlotte Otabor, Bethel Cole-Smith and Gauri Shankar Gautam
This article explores the role of gentrification in the selection of Opportunity Zone (OZ) census tracts, as well as the potential impact of OZ on gentrification in the 100 most populous urban areas in the United States and in Washington, D.C. It analyzes the role of gentrification in the selection of OZ census tracts in 100 core-based statistical areas (CBSAs). A CBSA is a geographic area defined in terms of counties, which consists of an urban area of at least 10,000 population and its surrounding socially and economically integrated areas. Next, we test whether gentrification has differential impacts on economic activity in OZ and non-OZ neighborhoods in the 100 most populous metropolitan areas. If so, we then use the District of Columbia (D.C.) as a case study to analyze the impact of gentrification on migration in D.C. and predict the impact of economic activity in OZ-eligible neighborhoods. We construct an educationbased gentrification measure to analyze the relationship between OZs and gentrification in CBSAs. Our descriptive analysis of the 100 most populous urban areas in the United States (100 CBSAs) indicates that, although it appears that gentrified census tracts were not favored to receive OZ designation, the statistical relationships between gentrification and business and residential vacancy rates are stronger in OZ-designated tracts. In D.C., we find that gentrification has been spreading to more neighborhoods in OZ eligible neighborhoods. Using administrative data from the D.C. government, we find that in-migration rates of higher income residents are significantly higher compared to their out-migration rates. We examine OZ eligible census tracts to understand the expected destination of new investment, measured as the number of permits, and find that census tracts with positive net migration and lower business vacancy rates are likely to receive increased financing.
We make us safe: Alternatives to policing in a Latinx immigrant inner-ring suburb
Willow Lung-Amam, Nohely Alvarez, and Rodney Green
Inner-ring suburbs have experienced disinvestment, White flight and concentrated poverty alongside increasingly racialized, anti-immigrant policing. Yet scholarship has tended to overlook these neighborhoods as sites of violent policing or models of community safety. In a 4-year collaborative community-based crime reduction project, this case study investigates how uneven development policies and underdevelopment in a low-income Latinx inner-ring suburb gave rise to and supported racialized policing and safety concerns. We also assess the possibilities of addressing community safety by investing in community building and revitalization. The research shows how the legacy of neighborhood disinvestment and deprivation contributed to a lack of quality affordable housing, public spaces, healthcare, employment, and other conditions that support residents’ well-being—and thereby challenged public safety. Activities focused on community building and revitalization offered a positive and impactful alternative to community policing. While activities that invested in community policing demonstrated few successes, efforts focused on strengthening community knowledge, connecting residents to resources, engaging residents in community placemaking, and investing in youth had far better and potentially long-lasting results. The study suggests avenues to improve neighborhood safety in immigrant, Latinx, and declining suburbs without new investments in policing that too often puts residents at risk.
Contributing Factors to the Housing Cost Burden of Female-Headed Households
LaTanya N. Brown-Robertson and Augustin Ntembe
While the United States housing cost burden has reached historically high levels for all households in recent years, female-headed households with children tend to bear a significant portion this burden. This study uses data from the 2015 and 2019 American Housing Survey to explore the disparities in housing cost burdens among female-headed households. In general, the results from the fixed effect model reveal that housing assistance significantly decreases the female-headed household's housing cost burden, while renting tends to increase the female householders' housing burden compared to owning. The fixed effect parameters suggest that single Black mothers experienced a high housing cost burden in 2015 and 2019, more than any other category of Black female-headed households for both years. Likewise, single Hispanic mothers also face large housing cost burdens, which increased from 2015 to 2019. This finding should guide inquiries into the impact of changes in federal policies on the immigrant status on the rising housing cost burden of the Hispanic female cohort. The study's findings suggest an increase in public housing and rental assistance programs that benefit single black mothers with children and other vulnerable households.